how are the bacteria and the archaea different from all the other cellular microbes?

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Tina C. Spencer 3 weeks 1 Answer 38 views Regular Member 1

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  1. Bacteria are different from other kingdom because of many differences. There are dissimilarities that separate bacteria from other kingdom. Some of them are described below.

    1. Cell type:

    Bacteria belong to kingdom monera.  They are also unicellular single celled organism. Their cells are prokaryotic in nature. The cells don’t have membrane bound organelles that don’t resemble to kingdom Protista. They have low differentiated cells that have low machinery for their metabolism. They have simple organelles for their metabolism.

    On the other hand, other Kingdom involves multicellular organism. Their cell type resembles to the eukaryotes. Their cells have membrane bound organelles that are like to the eukaryotes. Unlike prokaryotes, they have high cell differentiation. The cells are highly differentiated for their metabolism.

    1. Membrane bound organelles

    Kingdom monera that consist of bacteria don’t have membrane bound organelles. Their genetic material is present in the cytoplasm. Their energy synthesize in the cytoplasm of the cell. They don’t have endoplasmic reticulum that provide support and synthesize the protein. Their ribosomes are suspended in the cytoplasm that synthesizes the protein for the cell. They don’t have the high modified organelles that are responsible for the performing different functions in the cell.

    Other Kingdom contains membrane bound organelles. They have nucleus for genetic material, mitochondria for energy, endoplasmic reticulum for support and protein synthesis, microtubules that allows the movement in the cell. They resemble to the eukaryotes because they have all the organelles that are present in higher animals. They have membrane bound organelles that perform different functions of the cells.

    1. Genetic material

    Bacteria don’t have membrane bound nucleus for the genetic material. Their genetic material is present in the cytoplasm. Their DNA doesn’t bind with the histones proteins. They have the different mechanism for the condensation of genetic material. They have the DNA gyrases enzymes that is responsible for the coiling and supercoiling of the DNA.  Then, the small RNA primer binds to the DNA and allows the DNA to supercoil and coil. There are no histone proteins that allow the binding of DNA with proteins for condensation.

    Other Kingdom involves the organisms that have the membrane bound nucleus for the genetic material. The cell genetic material is present in the nucleus. The DNA wrapped on the histone proteins and makes a condensed structure in the nucleus of cell. Histones are positive charge proteins that are present in the cell. DNA have phosphate group in its backbone, this give DNA negative charge. This negative charge around the DNA attracts histone proteins and attach with them. This attachment is so strong that allows the DNA to form a condensed structure inside the nucleus.

    1. Electron transport chain

    In kingdom bacteria, electron transport chain occurs in the cell membrane. Plasma membrane consists of all the enzymes that are responsible for the electron transport chain in cell. It is responsible for the generation of energy in the cell. The proton pumps and the protein complexes are present in the cell membrane that is responsible for the acceptance of electrons. There are three types of respiration in the bacteria i.e. aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration and fermentation. In the aerobic respiration, the electron is accepted by the oxygen. In aerobic respiration, electron is accepted by other than oxygen i.e. nitrates, sulfates. In fermentation, the electron is accepted by the internal organic compounds.

    In other kingdom, electron transport chain occurs in the mitochondria. Mitochondria have all the enzymes that are responsible for the acceptance of oxygen into the ETC. It is responsible for the generation of energy in the cell. The proton pumps and the protein complexes are present in the mitochondrial membranes that are responsible for the acceptance of electrons. In the end, the electron is accepted by the oxygen during aerobic respiration. The entire organisms are aerobes; in which only oxygen accept the electron.

    1. Support to the cell.

    Bacteria don’t have true cytoskeleton for support. The bacterial cytoskeletons have tubulin related proteins and actin related bacterial proteins that provide support to the cell. Bacterial cell have these tubulin protein structure that maintain the cell structure and allow the movement of nutrient into the cell.

    In other kingdom, cytoskeleton is present that provide support to the cell. These are the intracellular protein that gives shape to the cell, give support to the cell and maintain its shape. There are three components of the cytoskeleton i.e. microfilaments, microtubules and intermediate filaments. It also facilitates the movement of nutrients and chemicals into the cell. Microtubules make up the centrioles that help in the cell division.

    1. Chloroplast

    Bacteria don’t have chloroplast. Their chlorophyll is suspended in the cytoplasm that can absorb the light and undergoes photosynthesis. They have bacterial chlorophylls and carotenoids that are responsible for fixing the carbon dioxide. Their chlorophylls are different from the plants chlorophyll. These bacteria can prepare their food by itself.

    On the other hand, Chloroplast is present in the autotrophic organism. There are many photosynthetic protists that have chloroplast for photosynthesis. Chloroplast has chlorophyll that resembles the plants chlorophyll. This chlorophyll absorbs the light wavelength and then undergoes photosynthesis. They can synthesize their own food by fixing the carbon dioxide.

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