is bacteria a prokaryote or eukaryote ?


is bacteria a prokaryote or eukaryote

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Lynda J. Norton 2022-11-30T05:44:25+00:00 1 Answer 13 views New Member 0

Answer ( 1 )


    Bacteria are prokaryotic in nature.
    1. Cell type:
    Bacteria belonging to the kingdom Monera. They are also a unicellular single-celled organism. Their cells are prokaryotic in nature. The cells don’t have membrane-bound organelles that don’t resemble yeast. They have low differentiated cells that have low machinery for their metabolism. They have simple organelles for their metabolism.
    2. Membrane-bound organelles
    Kingdom Monera that consist of bacteria don’t have membrane-bound organelles. Their genetic material is present in the cytoplasm. Their energy synthesizes in the cytoplasm of the cell. They don’t have endoplasmic reticulum that provides support and synthesize the protein. Their ribosomes are suspended in the cytoplasm that synthesizes the protein for the cell. They don’t have the high modified organelles that are responsible for performing different functions in the cell.
    3. Genetic material
    Bacteria don’t have membrane-bound nucleus for the genetic material. Their genetic material is present in the cytoplasm. Their DNA doesn’t bind with the histones proteins. They have a different mechanism for the condensation of genetic material. They have the DNA gyrases enzymes that are responsible for the coiling and supercoiling of the DNA. Then, the small RNA primer binds to the DNA and allows the DNA to supercoil and coil. There are no histone proteins that allow the binding of DNA with proteins for condensation.
    4. Electron transport chain
    In kingdom bacteria, electron transport chain occurs in the cell membrane. Plasma membrane consists of all the enzymes that are responsible for the electron transport chain in the cell. It is responsible for the generation of energy in the cell. The proton pumps and the protein complexes are present in the cell membrane that is responsible for the acceptance of electrons. There are three types of respiration in the bacteria i.e. aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation. In the aerobic respiration, the electron is accepted by the oxygen. In aerobic respiration, the electron is accepted by other than oxygen i.e. nitrates, sulfates. In fermentation, the electron is accepted by the internal organic compounds.
    5. Support to the cell.
    Bacteria don’t have true cytoskeleton for support. The bacterial cytoskeletons have tubulin related proteins and actin-related bacterial proteins that provide support to the cell. The bacterial cell has these tubulin protein structures that maintain the cell structure and allow the movement of nutrient into the cell.
    6. Habitat
    Bacteria are present anywhere in the environment. They are present in hot springs, volcanoes, freshwater, marine water, high salt ranges and etc. Almost everywhere on the earth, bacteria are present.

    7. Protein folding:
    Bacteria are prokaryotic in nature. These organisms don’t have post-transcriptional modification and their proteins are not modified after translation. They don’t have the chaperons that modified the protein according to their structure. Their mRNA is spliced down into different proteins.
    8. Mode of nutrition
    Bacteria are either photosynthetic or heterotrophic. They can be either synthesizing their food or lives on other food sources. But, they don’t have the combination of nutrition in the bacteria.

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