why is naturally occurring transformation beneficial to bacteria?

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John V. Shea 10 months 1 Answer 261 views Regular Member -1

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  1. Transformation is the process in which the bacterial genes are altered in the bacteria by up taking the exogenous chromosomal material from environment.

    It is the process in horizontal genetic transfer in which the genetic material transfers from bacteria to other bacteria. This process occurs in the competence cell that is in the phase of temporary take up of exogenous DNA.

    The transformation is dependent on the recipient bacteria and passing through the intervening material.

    1. Natural transformation:

    For natural transformation the bacterial cell must be competent. Competent is the processing in which bacteria is in temporary stage of take up the exogenous DNA. For natural transformation the bacteria must have type 4 pilli systems, type 3 secretary system and DNA translocase.

    In this process, the DNA binds to the competent cell DNA receptor and then move to the cytoplasmic membrane by DNA translocase enzymes. One strand of DNA is passes and other DNA strand is degraded by nuclease enzymes. Then, the single stranded DNA integrate into the bacterial chromosome by REC-A dependent process.

    1. Induced transformation:

    Bacteria

    This transformation is also induced in the laboratory by chemicals. The competent cell can be prepared by using two methods.

    • Chemical
    • Physical

    Physical method includes the treatment of cell with the heat shock. Heat shock produces the pores in the cell and allows exogenous bacteria to move inside the cell.

    Chemical methods include the addition of calcium chloride into the cell solution at low temperature. The cell membrane becomes permeable by using CaCl2 solutions. Exogenous DNA moves inside the cell with the help of pores.

    Yeast:

    Yeast cell wall is treated by enzymes to create the spheroplast. The cell wall degrades and allows the DNA to move inside the cell.

    The yeast cell is treated with the alkali cations. The cell take up the plasmid DNA when treat with cesium and lithium.

    Electroporation also create the pores in the cell. Electroporation is the process in which the cell pores are created with the help of electric current.

    Importance:

    The importance of transformation is as follows.

    • It is used in molecular biology to transfer the exogenous DNA into the cell..
    • This process helps in expressing the selective genes into the bacteria.
    • This process is used in the production of many enzymes, coenzymes and byproducts.

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