Answers ( 2 )

  1. Salmonella is diagnosed by the following ways.

    • History:

    The doctor can diagnose the patient by taking the history. The doctor can get the idea from the food taken by the patient and incubation period of the bacteria. The food responsible for the salmonella infection is eating raw or undercooked meat, poultry, eggs or egg products. The incubation period ranges from several hours to two days

    • Signs and symptoms:

    The doctor can diagnose the patient with signs and symptoms. The sign and symptoms of salmonella infection include

    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • Abdominal cramps
    • Diarrhea
    • Fever
    • Chills
    • Headache
    • Blood in the stool
    • Isolation of bacteria from representative samples:

    There are many samples that can be taken for the isolation of salmonella. But the best representative sample is the stool sample. The fresh stool is collected from the patient. Salmonella-shigella (SS) agar is used to isolate the bacteria from the sample. SS agar is used for the selective and differential isolation of salmonella and Shigella. Salmonella gives colorless colonies with black center on this agar. This colony morphology represents the presence of salmonella in stool sample.

    • Biochemical tests:

    Biochemical test includes

    • Gram’s staining:

    Gram’s staining is used to identify the bacteria. Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria are identified under the microscope.

     

    • API kits:

    API kits are used for the identification of bacteria. These are the carbohydrates fermentation kits that are ferment by bacteria. This fermentation is specific for bacteria. The pattern of carbohydrate fermentation is used for the identification.

    • Molecular techniques:

    In severe cases, bacteria are identified by molecular techniques. The molecular techniques include

    • DNA extraction:

    DNA is extracted from the sample. DNA is specific for every species.

    • PCR:

    PCR is used to amplify the DNA. The primers are used to start the amplification process. These primers are specific for species. If the amplicons form, bacteria are present in the sample.

  2. Salmonella is diagnosed by the following ways.

    • History:

    The doctor can diagnose the patient by taking the history. The doctor can get the idea from the food taken by the patient and incubation period of the bacteria. The food responsible for the salmonella infection is eating raw or undercooked meat, poultry, eggs or egg products. The incubation period ranges from several hours to two days

    • Signs and symptoms:

    The doctor can diagnose the patient with signs and symptoms. The sign and symptoms of salmonella infection include

    Nausea

    Vomiting

    Abdominal cramps

    Diarrhea

    Fever

    Chills

    Headache

    Blood in the stool

    • Isolation of bacteria from representative samples:

    There are many samples that can be taken for the isolation of salmonella. But the best representative sample is the stool sample. The fresh stool is collected from the patient. Salmonella-shigella (SS) agar is used to isolate the bacteria from the sample. SS agar is used for the selective and differential isolation of salmonella and Shigella. Salmonella gives colorless colonies with black center on this agar. This colony morphology represents the presence of salmonella in stool sample.

    • Biochemical tests:

    Biochemical test includes

    Gram’s staining:

    Gram’s staining is used to identify the bacteria. Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria are identified under the microscope.

    API kits:

    API kits are used for the identification of bacteria. These are the carbohydrates fermentation kits that are ferment by bacteria. This fermentation is specific for bacteria. The pattern of carbohydrate fermentation is used for the identification.

    • Molecular techniques:

    In severe cases, bacteria are identified by molecular techniques. The molecular techniques include

    DNA extraction:

    DNA is extracted from the sample. DNA is specific for every species.

    PCR:

    PCR is used to amplify the DNA. The primers are used to start the amplification process. These primers are specific for species. If the amplicons form, bacteria are present in the sample.

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