Answers ( 3 )

  1. How does salmonella cause disease?

    Salmonella is a gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium. They are motile and non-spore forming. They are facultative anaerobes that can survive in the absence of oxygen. These bacteria grow best at 37ᴼC but the temperature range is 5-45ᴼC. These bacteria grow at 5.5 – 9 pH ranges and grow best at neutral pH.

    Transmission:

    They are present in the human gut and excrete through feces. Sewage contamination in food leads to the contamination of foods. The sewage contaminations are due to pipe leakage and mixing of sewage water with the food. These bacteria cause food infection in the organism.

    Food infection:

    Food infection refers to the food-borne illness that is caused by vegetative bacteria. Bacteria are present in the food. The bacteria go into the intestine and then produced toxins that cause food-borne illness. There is two class sampling plan in case of food infection caused by these pathogens. Two classes plan involves either the acceptance of food or the rejection of food. There is no bacterial enumeration in the two-class plan system.

    Pathogenesis:

    They don’t produce any toxins. Bacteria are present in the food that goes into the intestine by crossing the stomach. In the intestine, it adheres with enterocyte and invades in the cell. Salmonella is an intracellular pathogen that increases the adenylate cyclase activity. This increases the cAMP level of the intestine that leads to diarrhea. The inflammation of intestine starts when cell lysis occurs. This inflammation is called gastroenteritis.

    Enumeration:

    Salmonella-Shigella agar is used for the detection of salmonella in the food.

     

  2. salmonella is an intracellular pathogen that causes disease when food is contaminated with salmonella. this bacterium sheds in the feaces. Salmonella adheres with the enterocytes and increases the adenylate cyclase activity of the intestinal cells. This increase in adenylate cyclase activity causes the loss of chloride ions.  This situation leads to diarrhea.

  3. Salmonella mostly cause disease when you ingest food or drink water that is already contaminated with salmonella. This is because salmonella mostly shed into fieces that goes to sewerage and that contaminate vegetables which are irrigated with such water.

    Similarly, drinking water can be contaminated this way

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