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    Most common bacteria are classified in the eubacteria kingdom.


    1. Cell type

    Eubacteria belongs to kingdom monera.  They are also unicellular single celled organism. Their cells are prokaryotic in nature. The cells don’t have membrane bound organelles. They have low differentiated cells that have low machinery for their metabolism. They have simple organelles for their metabolism.

    Bacteria don’t have membrane bound organelles. Their genetic material is present in the cytoplasm. Their energy synthesize in the cytoplasm of the cell. They don’t have endoplasmic reticulum that provide support and synthesize the protein. Their ribosomes are suspended in the cytoplasm that synthesizes the protein for the cell. They don’t have the high modified organelles that are responsible for the performing different functions in the cell.

    1. Size and Shapes:

    Bacteria are the small organism that cannot be seen through naked eyes. Bacterial size range is in micrometers. These are tiny entities that need 1000 times magnification to observe and identify. Their size depends on the bacteria shape. The size of cocci ranges from 0.5 to 3 m and the size of bacilli ranges from 0.15 to 2 m width and 0.5 to 20 m in length.

    • Bacterial morphology:

    Bacterial morphology deals with the shape of bacteria. These are present in three shapes.

    • Cocci:

    Cocci are the bacteria that have spherical symmetry. They are observed as circle under microscope. They resemble as tiny balls in the microscope.

    E.g.  Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus.

    • Bacilli:

    These are rod shape bacteria under the microscope. Their width and length vary from bacteria to bacteria. They resemble as pilli of bacteria. They may have square ends or round ends.

    E.g. Bacillus anthracis

    • Spiral:

    Some bacteria have spiral like morphology. They are twisted and helical symmetry that resemble like cork screws.

    E.g. Helicobacter pylori and  Vibrio cholera

    • Bacterial arrangements:

    They may arrange as single, double, chains and clusters. These arrangements depend on the dimension of microbial cell division.

    • Single:

    Some bacteria appear as single cell under microscope. These bacteria divide in one dimension.

    • Diplo:

    Some bacteria appear as pair or double cells. Two single cells combine together and form a diplo cells. These cells also divide in one dimension.

    • Tetrad:

    Some bacteria arrange themselves in the pair of two. These are present as 4 bacteria arranged themselves to give a tetrad shape. These bacteria divide in two dimensions.

    • Strep:

    These bacteria are present in the form of chains. They are seem as long chains under the microscope. Their cell division also occurs in one dimension.

    • Staph:

    These bacteria are present in the form of clusters under the microscope. They look like as grapes under the microscope. The cell division of these bacteria occurs in random conditions.

    1. Motility

    Flagella are present in the outer surface of both bacteria for movement. Flagella are a Latin word that means whip. It is the extracellular component of bacteria that are present outside the cell. Flagella allow the bacteria to move in all 360ᴼ angles. Bacteria move in the form of run and tumble. Flagella are protein in nature. The flagella composition varies from eubacteria and Archaea bacteria.

    1. Cell division

    Bacteria growth refers to the increase in number of bacterial cells. Bacteria divide exponentially into the environment. Bacteria growth is represent in the form of generation time. Generation time is the time in which the bacterial cell divides into two. Both Bacteria divide through the process of:


    • Binary fission.

    Binary fission is the most common method in the division of bacteria. Bacteria replicate its genetic material into the cell. The chromosomes duplicate and cell membrane start pinches inward the membrane. This invagination results in the formation of new daughter cell. Peptidoglycan starts accumulate in the membrane and form the cell wall. The cell wall formation forms the new independent cell.

    • Fragmentation

    Fragmentation refers to the formation of new cell from the fragment of the filamentous bacteria. The filamentous bacteria cut into fragments. The new fragment starts growing into the new bacterial cell. This process is common in filamentous bacteria.

    • Budding

    Budding is the process in which the bud grows into a new bacterial cell.  The bus may either remain attach or de-attach from the parent cell. This bud grows into a new offspring.

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