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    Yes, Escherichia coli (E. coli) can ferment both lactose and glucose. In laboratory tests, microbiologists use various biochemical methods to differentiate between different types of bacteria. One common test, called the lactose fermentation test, helps identify whether bacteria like E. coli can ferment lactose. E. coli typically produces acid and gas when fermenting lactose, which leads to a change in the color of the medium used in the test. Similarly, E. coli can also ferment glucose, another sugar commonly used in these tests, producing acid as a byproduct. These fermentation capabilities are important characteristics used to distinguish E. coli from other bacteria.

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