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    To test for E. coli, microbiologists typically use a method called culture-based testing. In this process, a sample, such as a swab from a surface or a specimen from a patient, is collected and placed onto a specialized agar plate that contains nutrients suitable for E. coli growth. If E. coli is present in the sample, it will multiply and form visible colonies on the agar plate. These colonies can then be identified through various biochemical tests to confirm their identity as E. coli. Additionally, molecular methods like PCR (polymerase chain reaction) can be employed to detect specific DNA sequences unique to E. coli, providing a rapid and accurate diagnosis.

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